The Facts

A hernia occurs when a portion of tissue in your body bulges into or penetrates a weakened muscle area. Theoretically, hernias can happen anywhere in your body, but most occur in the abdomen between the rib cage and the groin.

There are several types of hernias:

  • Hiatus or diaphragmatic hernias occur when a piece of your stomach protrudes through the diaphragm (the muscle that separates the chest region from the abdominal area) via the opening through which the esophagus (food tube) passes into the stomach. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias occur in a small percentage of newborn babies and present a medical emergency. The organs that are normally found in the abdomen, push up and through the diaphragm, crowding the lungs, and may cause breathing problems.
  • Inguinal or groin hernias occur when part of the abdominal contents (usually part of the intestine or a piece of bowel) protrudes into the groin area. Although they are often associated with older adults, inguinal hernias occur in as many as 5% of full-term babies.
  • Umbilical hernias are similar to inguinal hernias but are found in the area of the umbilicus (the navel or belly button area).
  • Incisional hernias occur when a piece of intestine protrudes through a weakness in the abdominal wall in an area where surgery has been performed.
  • Femoral hernias occur when a piece of intestine protrudes though the passage that is normally used by large blood vessels as they pass between the abdomen and leg.
  • Paraesophageal hernias are uncommon, but can be life threatening because in some cases they can cause the entire stomach to slip into the chest cavity.


The cause of some hernias cannot be pinpointed, but many result from increased pressure within the abdomen, a weak spot in the abdominal wall, or a combination of the two.

In adults, hiatus hernias commonly develop in pregnant women and overweight people due to the increased pressure on the abdominal wall.

In men, an inguinal hernia will commonly develop in the groin, specifically in a region called the inguinal canal. This is where the spermatic cord and blood vessels to the testicles pass out of the abdominal cavity and into the scrotum. A weakness in the abdominal tissues at this point can allow a loop of bowel to pass out of the abdomen by following the path of the spermatic cord (indirect inguinal hernia) or between the opening into the inguinal canal and the pubic bone (direct inguinal hernia).

In women, inguinal hernias are rare, but can develop where the tissue that binds the uterus exits from the abdomen and joins with the tissue surrounding the vaginal opening.

Umbilical hernias may be present at birth. In adults, they may develop when there is a weakness in the tissue in the umbilical area combined with increased pressure on the abdominal wall.

Symptoms and Complications

If you have a hiatus hernia, you usually don't have any symptoms unless the sphincter muscles around the lower end of the esophagus become weak. When this occurs, the valve between the stomach and esophagus (gullet) won't stay closed, and stomach acids will spill into the esophagus. As a result, you may experience heartburn, sharp pain, regurgitation, belching, and sometimes bleeding. At night, you may experience coughing, breathlessness, or a choking sensation.

Signs and symptoms of an inguinal (groin) hernia include discomfort while bending over or during lifting. You may feel a small egg-like lump in your groin that may become more prominent with certain activities such as coughing. It will usually not hurt at first and will disappear when you lie down. If the bulge persists and is accompanied by nausea and vomiting or abdominal pain, this can be a sign that the hernia has become obstructed or strangulated.

Although rare, an untreated hernia that strangulates may result in gangrene (death of tissue), which is a life-threatening condition and requires emergency surgical attention. Symptoms of strangulation include pain, swelling, discoloured bluish or red skin, vomiting, and an inability to urinate.

Children with strangulated inguinal hernias may have fever and vomiting and should be seen immediately by a doctor.

Inguinal hernias may not make themselves known until your abdominal wall is weakened after years of straining during bowel movements or from heavy coughing or lifting. Smokers are prone to such hernias. Physical exertion such as lifting may exacerbate a hernia by suddenly causing the weakened abdominal lining to give way.

Paraesophageal hernias usually have no symptoms, but if symptoms do occur, the most common are pain, indigestion, nausea, and retching.

Making the Diagnosis

A hiatus hernia may be diagnosed using X-rays and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy (looking at the stomach via a fiberoptic tube), esophageal manometry (using a special instrument to measure your sphincter pressure), and tests to measure your esophageal acidity.

During a routine physical examination your doctor may discover an inguinal hernia. Your doctor will usually diagnose it by feeling the area of the internal inguinal ring, deep in the groin. If there's a bulge in the area, then there's a good possibility that it's due to a hernia.

Treatment and Prevention

General hernia prevention strategies include avoiding activities that cause abdominal strain (e.g., lifting heavy weights), and if you're overweight, losing weight.

In 85% to 95% of hiatus hernia cases, treatment consists of relieving the accompanying heartburn with medication and modifying the diet. Losing weight is also recommended as a way to help relieve pressure. If you experience discomfort at night, it may help to sleep with the upper part of your body propped up on pillows or with the head of your bed raised. It is important not to eat for several hours before lying down, so that the stomach has time to empty. Standing straight rather than slouching is also a good idea. Surgery is uncommon and is reserved as a last resort for severe cases if medical and dietary management hasn't helped.

If you have an inguinal or umbilical hernia, it is generally repaired by surgery that places the protruding mass back where it belongs and reinforces the weakened area by sewing the muscles together. This is a simple operation that is sometimes performed under local anesthetic.

It's important to go for regular medical follow-up after surgery because of possible complications. Some surgeons recommend restricting exercise; however, most will encourage a speedy return to activities. Hospital stays of 2 or 3 days for surgery have been reduced in the last few years to a same-day discharge.

Laparoscopic hernia repair is done through a tiny incision and avoids the need for invasive open surgery. A television screen enables the surgeon to clearly see inside the person's body. Studies have shown that this method of treatment promotes faster healing with less likelihood of recurrence.

Wearing a truss was sometimes used in the past to avoid surgery. It is no longer considered an acceptable form of treatment for hernias. In fact, it can even make your hernia worse by weakening tissues.

Paraesophageal hernias are generally treated with surgery.