In this drug factsheet:
What side effects are possible with this medication?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent. The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.
- cough (dry, persistent)
- dizziness or lightheadedness
- sexual difficulties
Although most of the side effects listed below don't happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not seek medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
- chest pain
- fast heartbeat or palpitations
- irregular heartbeat
- low blood pressure (dizziness, lightheadedness, especially when rising from a lying or sitting position)
- numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, or lips
- signs of liver damage (abdominal pain, abdominal distention, fever, nausea, or vomiting, yellowing of the skin or eyes)
- skin rash with or without itching, fever, or joint pain
- sore throat and fever
- swelling of the hands, feet, or ankles
Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
- abdominal pain, with or without nausea or vomiting
- signs of an allergic reaction, including angioedema (shortness of breath or difficulty breathing; hives; swelling of the eyes, mouth, lips, or throat)
- symptoms of a heart attack (pain, pressure, tightness or heaviness in the chest, jaw, neck or shoulder, sweating, or shortness of breath)
- symptoms of a stroke (sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body; sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech; sudden problems with coordination or balance; sudden vision problems in one or both eyes; sudden, severe headache with no other cause)
Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.
Angioedema: Ramipril may cause a serious allergic reaction called angioedema, which may be fatal if not treated promptly. If you have difficulty breathing or notice hives or swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat, stop taking this medication and get emergency medical help at once. Other ACE inhibitors should not be taken in the future. People who have had angioedema caused by other substances may be at increased risk of angioedema while taking this medication.
Blood disorders: In rare cases, a low white blood cell count has been reported with people taking this medication. Your doctor may occasionally monitor your level of white blood cells by performing blood tests. Low white blood cell levels may increase your risk for infection. If you notice any signs of infection (e.g., fever, sore throat), contact your doctor as soon as possible.
Cough: People taking ramipril may develop a dry, persistent cough that usually disappears only after stopping or lowering the dose of ramipril.
Kidney function: Changes in kidney function have occurred in certain people who take this medication. The use of diuretics (water pills) may further increase the risk of kidney problems for those already at risk for this problem. People with kidney function impairment may require lower doses of this medication. Your doctor will monitor you closely while you are taking this medication.
Liver function: This medication may cause liver problems. If you experience any signs of liver problems such as yellowing of the skin or eyes, fever, generally feeling unwell, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, itching, muscle pain, rash, or swollen glands, contact your doctor immediately. People who have liver problems will need to be closely monitored by their doctor while taking this medication.
Low blood pressure: Occasionally, blood pressure drops too low after taking ramipril. This usually happens after the first or second dose or when the dose is increased. It is more likely to occur for those who take diuretics, have a salt-restricted diet, are on dialysis, have diarrhea, or are vomiting. To reduce the risk of dizziness, get up slowly from a lying or sitting position. If low blood pressure causes you to faint or feel lightheaded, contact a doctor.
Potassium: Increases in blood levels of potassium can occur with use of this medication. This rarely causes problems, but your doctor will likely want to monitor your potassium levels through blood tests.
Reduced alertness: This medication may reduce alertness, especially at the beginning of treatment. Do not drive or perform tasks that require alertness until you know how this medication affects you.
Pregnancy: ACE inhibitors such as ramipril may cause serious problems during pregnancy. This medication should not be used during pregnancy. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, stop taking it immediately and contact your doctor.
Breast-feeding: It is not known if ramipril passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are taking this medication, it may affect your baby. This medication is not recommended for breast-feeding women. Talk to your doctor.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication have not been established for children. Its use by this age group is not recommended.
Seniors: Seniors may be more sensitive to the effects of ramipril.
What other drugs could interact with this medication?
There may be an interaction between ramipril and any of the following:
- antidiabetes medications (e.g., insulin, glyburide, gliclazide)
- blood pressure-lowering medications
- diuretics (water pills; e.g., furosemide, amiloride, spironolactone, triamterene)
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs; e.g., ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen)
- substances which increase potassium levels (e.g., potassium chloride, salt substitutes containing potassium)
If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:
- stop taking one of the medications,
- change one of the medications to another,
- change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
- leave everything as is.
An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.
Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.