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Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation
About atrial fibrillation
Do I have atrial fibrillation?
How can atrial fibrillation harm me?
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Have you heard of arrhythmia? What about heart flutter or irregular heartbeat? These are terms often used to describe a heart rhythm problem called atrial fibrillation. Find out more about this common yet largely unknown medical condition.
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What is atrial fibrillation?

Atrial fibrillation (also known as AF or AFib) is the most common type of arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat or heart rhythm). You may have also heard people refer to this heart rhythm problem as "heart flutter" or "irregular heartbeat." They may also call it "heart palpitations," which are the most common symptom of atrial fibrillation.

To understand atrial fibrillation, you need to understand how the heart works and what a normal heartbeat is.

The normal heart
The heart is a muscle made up of 4 chambers: 2 atria (the left atrium and the right atrium, making up the top half of the heart) and 2 ventricles (left and right, which make up the bottom half of the heart). The heart has its own electrical system that controls the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat. The heart beats at an average of 60 to 100 times per minute at rest. The role of the heartbeat is to pump blood around the body.

The heart's electrical system signals the chambers of the heart to work in coordination to expand and contract to pump blood into the heart and out to the rest of the body. This starts with an electrical signal sent out by a group of cells called the sinus or sinoatrial (SA) node, the natural pacemaker of the heart. The SA is located in the right atrium. From the SA node, the electrical signal travels through the right and left atria, causing the atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles.


Figure 1

Click to enlarge

The electrical signal then moves down to a group of cells called the atrioventricular (AV) node. The AV node is the "gateway" between the atria and the ventricles. At the AV node, the electrical signal slows down to allow the ventricles time to finish filling with blood from the atria. From the AV node, the electrical signal travels through the right and left ventricles, causing the ventricles to contract and pump blood out to the rest of the body. After contracting, the ventricles relax and the heartbeat process starts again in the SA node.

The normal heartbeat is called "normal sinus rhythm" because the SA node is controlling the electrical system of the heart.

Atrial fibrillation
In atrial fibrillation, arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat or heart rhythm) occurs because the electrical signal controlling the heartbeat becomes confused, and the atria quiver rapidly and unevenly, changing the constant rhythm of the heart.

The atria and ventricles no longer work in a coordinated way to contract and pump blood, the heart may not pump blood efficiently, and the heart rhythm becomes abnormal. In AF, the heart beats about 100 to 175 times per minute.

In our Human Atlas, you can see a video on atrial fibrillation.

There are three types of atrial fibrillation:

Paroxysmal: Paroxysmal AF is temporary and sometimes recurrent condition that can start suddenly. The heartbeat returns to normal on its own within one week, without any medical assistance.

Persistent: In persistent AF, atrial fibrillation episodes last longer than one week and do not go away on their own. Medical assistance is required to return the heart rhythm to normal.

Permanent: In permanent AF, the irregular heartbeat lasts for a longer period of time (more than a year) and the heart rhythm does not return to normal even with medical assistance. Some people with permanent AF do not feel any symptoms.

Atrial fibrillation is a serious condition that has serious complications and it can greatly affect your quality of life. AF can lead to stroke, heart failure, and hospitalizations.

The good news is that AF is manageable and you can lead an active, healthy, normal life with appropriate treatment.

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